"This paper presents a numerical method for determining the effects of the tilt and orientation (or azimuth) angles of solar conversion devices (such as photovoltaic panels and flat-plate collectors). It requires the geographic location (latitude) and the monthly average daily global radiation data of the site as inputs. Then, these data are transformed into hourly global radiation data, which are then broken down into direct (beam), diffuse and ground-reflected radiation components. The Brute Force method is then used, which simulates within the range of tilt angles (between 0⁰ and 90⁰) and azimuth angles (between -90⁰ and +90⁰) to evaluate the annual average daily solar radiation collected by these devices. These values are plotted in a contour graph, which provides a visual understanding of the effects of these angles on the annual collection. This method is then used to develop contour diagrams for various cities in New Zealand, which are discussed in detail. The results show that the devices must be facing true north and the tilt angle must be in a specific range to achieve maximum collection. The results of this research will help commercial designers, researchers, and students during technical and financial feasibility studies and the practical execution of such projects."
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