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Southern Institute of Technology Journal of Applied Research (SITJAR)

ISSN: 1175-1061

The Southern Institute of Technology Journal of Applied Research (SITJAR) is an online journal that specialises in applied research in the vocational and educational sector. The journal seeks original material in any field of applied research related to vocational education and training and is aimed at practitioners, academics and researchers.

Latest Publication

Special Edition: Heutagogy or Self-Determined Learning



The development of a cross-matrix for evaluating active learning methods

Leah Ingrid Seno

This paper describes the development of a tool, called the cross-matrix, for evaluating active learning in the classroom. The aim of the tool is to improve teaching practice by creating a means of ensuring that a learning method applied in the classroom achieves the goals of learning. Two important theories in education were integrated to produce the cross-matrix: Fink’s Active Learning Model and Bloom’s Taxonomy. Fink’s Active Learning Model identifies three interrelated components integral to a complete learning experience: information and ideas, experiencing, reflective dialogue (Fink, n.d.). Bloom’s Taxonomy identifies three domains of learning: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor (Clark, 2013). The matrix contains evaluation criteria which are cross-elements of both. The combination of these components into one tool ensures that students are getting maximum benefit out of active learning and are developing a wider range of skills to enhance their work-readiness. The cross-matrix was trialled in a series of learning activities implemented within WelTec (Wellington Institute of Technology) where the researcher is a lecturer. The findings of the study show that the cross-matrix provides insight into what a learner acquires from a learning method, pinpoints gaps in their learning experience and ensures that the method has a high degree of educational impact.

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Problem Solving Strategies in Math Anxiety Management
John Mumford, Frank Smedley

Math anxiety is a phenomenon that overshadows the lives of many individuals, evoking strong emotions in students, teachers and parents blocking academic progress, and leading to reduced career opportunity choices. Anxiety associated with mathematics is a persistent challenge to the teaching profession across many sectors and academic levels. The rationale for this research is to better understand math anxiety by identifying key risk factors for math anxiety and appropriate strategies to reduce it. Results confirmed the highly complex multidimensional nature of math anxiety and the power that a single strategy could address multiple risk factors. Mathematical content knowledge of teachers is a highly significant component of sector-wide strategies to deal with math anxiety. Teacher professional development, increased awareness of the power of informal methods of mathematical problem-solving and multiple approaches to mathematical problem solving is needed to support efforts to reduce math anxiety.

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Using PeerWise to Knowledge Build and Consolidate Knowledge in Nursing Education
Johanna Rhodes

This paper describes a quantitative research study which hypothesised that “Using PeerWise provided opportunities for knowledge building and consolidating knowledge for Nursing Students in the third year of their Bachelor of Nursing programme at the Southern Institute of Technology”. PeerWise is an on-line repository of multiple choice questions that educators and students create, and share. The 2012 year three Bachelor of Nursing cohort accessed PeerWise from February 2012 until November 2012 and this was linked to the clinical paper ‘Nursing in the Acute Setting’, a 30 credit paper in the Bachelor of Nursing curriculum. This study used manifest content analysis and the results suggested that PeerWise had provided opportunities for knowledge building and consolidating understanding.

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An investigation into the sport needs and preferences of youth aged 13-18 years in a semi-rural community
Mike Dudson, Greg Cummings, Cath Fraser

Well designed, integrated, and efficiently delivered school and community sport and recreation programmes can provide a wide range of benefits including the ability to assist in the development of productive and engaged citizens, provide social cohesion, produce economic benefits, enhance a region’s identity and build a healthier community. In recognition of these benefits, secondary schools have a well-established tradition of providing opportunities for students to engage in social and competitive sporting pursuits. However, recent nation-wide surveys have identified a decline in student participation in sport, and indeed, in physical activity behaviour overall. To date, little research has been undertaken to probe this phenomenon; the survey reported in this paper offers a possible starting point for understanding the specific needs and preferences of students in order to enhance the delivery sport programmes within the school and the community. A survey of 1495 students from two semi-rural secondary schools found while 84% of the sample reported they wanted to play sport, only 60% currently did so. This paper describes patterns of current sport engagement, motivators and barriers to participation in sport, and sporting preferences. Several recommendations for schools, sports programme providers and future researchers in this field are made.

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SITJAR Special Edition: Highlighting Staff-Student Research

Welcome to this special edition of SITJAR that presents a small number of the staff-student research projects undertaken at Southern Institute of Technology in 2010/2011. This special edition arose from the observation that there were a number of excellent small scale research projects being undertaken as part of the undergraduate degree curricula with findings that would be of interest to a wider community. The purpose of this edition is to disseminate some of the research findings from eight studies across the disciplines of massage therapy, environmental management, and sport and exercise.

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Reshaping Educational Experience by Investing in Community
Dr. Martin Andrew, Celine Kearney

The notion of “community” holds a key to enhancing higher education experiences for learners of English as an Additional Language (EAL), a core discipline of the vocational education and training (VET) sector in New Zealand. This paper contextualises the experiences of advanced EAL learners investing and participating in assessed community placements. Community placements represent a pedagogical intervention effectively giving learners access to communities of practice in a meaningful, authentic, real-world context. Pedagogically, they create learning contexts where instructors can reshape learners’ experiences by preparing students to explore and experience the linguistic and cultural potential of community. In the project, the journalised reflections of migrants and international students participating in a degree in EAL in New Zealand reveal the linguistic, cultural and ontological value of community work. The study uses the concepts of learner investment, communities of practice and imagined communities to theorise the participants’ learning, presents key qualitative findings about the cultural, linguistic, and transformative capital of community placements, and suggests they are valuable pedagogical interventions that can help reconfigure teaching and learning EAL in VET contexts.

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Promoting Engagement and Learning in First Year University
Peter Stanley, Cath Fraser, Dorothy Spiller

Student engagement in higher education can be conceptualised as involving three components: students’ social needs and circumstances, the cognitive characteristics of academic studies, and the prevailing institutional ethos or philosophy that specifies the relationships that students have with learning and knowledge. This paper reports on an investigation into student engagement in a first-year human development course at the University of Waikato at Tauranga, New Zealand where the teaching staff has a commitment to relating learning to individual experiences. Information from an end-of-course survey indicates that a philosophy of personalisation promotes learning engagement. Students reported that they were required to think a lot or a great deal, that they put time into the course assessments, and that they valued the human development course itself.

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Special Action Research Edition


Breaking the Myth of Teacher Retention – the Relationship between Effective Performance Factors and Teacher Retention in Singapore’s Preschool Industry
Philly Pek Tin Tin and Keith Ng Yong Ngee

Research from around the globe indicates that preschool teachers have a positive impact on quality early childhood care and education for young children. Early childhood education is important to nurture learning during a child’s the first six years. It is during these years that the platform for cognitive, social, emotional and physical development for dealing with the outside world is laid. However, with the recent increase in preschool teacher’s requirements and qualifications, it is likely preschools will face more challenges in recruiting qualified preschool teachers. Singapore preschools are already facing increasing difficulties in retaining qualified early childhood educators.

There is little research into the retention of preschool teachers in the Singapore early childhood industry. Hence, this paper proposes a theoretical model, based on a review of the more general literature, that identifies important effective performance management factors for teacher retention. These include financial and non-financial rewards, employee feedback and training,
and development of the employee.

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“What’s in it for me?” Massage practitioners’ perceptions of a degree qualification: a pilot study
Donna M. Smith, Joanna M. Smith, Rachel Spronken-S

Massage therapy is among the many growing complementary and alternative medicine modalities within New Zealand. Educational standards are unregulated and qualifications include certificates, diplomas and more recently a three-year Bachelors Degree in Massage Therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of the benefits and barriers to degree-based massage education. Issues examined were: purposes of degree-based education; perceived benefits of degree-based massage education; participant’s past education in massage therapy; current educational needs; and barriers to accessing degree-based massage education. The project used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews with three practicing, certificate or diploma qualified massage therapists. Perceived benefits of degree-based massage education were increased capability, research knowledge, job opportunities, and credibility. Participants identified four significant barriers to participating in further or higher education: a nonessential pursuit; time restraints; family considerations; and financial barriers. The view that a massage degree was non-essential, and that being forced by their professional body to undertake a degree qualification would meet with strong resistance, needs to be addressed by education providers and members of the massage therapy community if the profession is to advance as a health care modality.

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Bridging the digital divide: Students’ access to digital technologies in a language department
Moira Hobbs, Karen Haines/h3>

In many institutions in New Zealand from primary to tertiary level, the use of technology by both students and teachers to support learning and teaching is assumed. This article reports briefly on research done in a New Zealand tertiary institution in order to discover students’ perceptions of their access to and use of computer technologies. As well as giving a general overview of feedback from the 161 English as a Second or Other Language (ESOL) students in the study, responses are analysed in relation to age, gender and nationality groups. Results suggest that general access for students is high, but that differences exist in relation to gender and nationality. Such individual differences must always be considered by classroom teachers and accounted for as much as possible, as teachers continue to integrate technology use into their classroom practice.

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Knowledge Management and Public Records Compliance: A Forgotten World
Julian Galt and Stewart Hase

Tertiary institutes in New Zealand are being challenged by the need to make headway on Public Records Act (PRA) compliance. This aspect of knowledge management has been hitherto largely neglected. Furthermore, the actual implementation of knowledge management systems, where the rubber hits the road, is still developing at a time when ensuring that one’s knowledge base is not lost as staff move jobs, retire or are retrenched. This case study focuses on the strategy and implementation processes of a tertiary institution and the steps taken towards compliance. It examines the strategies employed to support the organisation’s growth and viability, and identifies issues contributing to a mismatch between the underpinning records systems, and operational needs. The institution has instigated an implementation plan to address this misalignment of strategies, and to address both the need for effective systems to support the organisation’s core activities, and the need for legislative compliance.

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The effect of massage on flexibility, comfort, efficiency and aerodynamic performance in time trial cycling: a single case study. Derek N. Tan and Joanna M. Smith

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a six week massage intervention on an athlete’s flexibility, comfort and performance in time trial cycling. A single case study design was used. Pre-intervention and post-intervention measures were obtained in a high and low time trial riding position over a 3000 meter distance. Flexibility was measured with a sit and reach test. The athlete was massaged twice a week using a hamstring and calf protocol over a period of six weeks. The athlete did not engage in hamstring, calf or low back stretching and trained in a normal road riding position for the duration of the intervention. Quicker times were reported in the post massage intervention time trial tests of both high and low riding positions. The lower position with its improved aerodynamics was the fastest position in both pre and post massage intervention. The sit and reach testing showed an overall increase in reach of 77 mm. Massage intervention improved flexibility and this allowed the athlete to be both comfortable and efficient in the lower time trial position and improved cycling performance with no post exercise muscle soreness.

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New primary source documents and evidence pertaining to the early years of the manufactory between 1730–1747, and John Campbell’s letter to Arthur Dobbs  Pat Daniels and W. Ross H Ramsay

This contribution relates to the early years of the Bow Porcelain Manufactory, its paste types used, and in particular to a letter written by John Campbell to Arthur Dobbs in which is mentioned white clay seen at Bow for their china ware. The date of the letter is deduced as early 1745 and the writer is corroborated as being John Campbell of Lazy Hill, Bertie County, North Carolina. Historical research on both sides of the Atlantic has established that the latest John Campbell could have been on site at Bow was during mid 1742, although there are compelling grounds for suggesting an even earlier date. Therefore Campbell’s visit to Bow represents the earliest extant eye-witness account of this famous porcelain concern. As a result, this personal correspondence should be recognised as one of the most important primary source documents relating to the English porcelain industry. It specifically names Bow as a business enterprise and mentions the use of white clay for its china ware, established here as most likely Cherokee china clay. Combined with other evidence as presented, it would seem that the chronology of some early Bow porcelains requires reassessment.

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Special Editions

Special Edition: Heutagogy or Self-Determined Learning


It’s been 16 years since the first paper was published on heutagogy in 2000 by the originators of the concept, Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon. Since then there has been hundreds of articles, blogs and other conversations about the topic. Most importantly, there has been an increase in publications researching the use of heutagogy and an impressive number of doctoral students choosing to focus their thesis on the topic.

Heutagogy has been applied in a wide variety of settings including lifelong learning, higher education, elearning, mobile learning, professional education, distance education, school education and vocational training, for example. This growing literature has meant that the concept of heutagogy has developed considerably since that first paper.

One of the main developments has been the ability to draw on brain and other research that has enabled the articulation of an evidence-based practice, now central to the literature on heutagogy. The paper by Stewart Hase describes the connection between brain research and heutagogy, along with a number of theoretical developments and practical applications that have occurred since 2000.

While heutagogy has been used in a number of contexts, a large proportion of the literature has been devoted to how self-determined learning can be applied to distance education, elearning and mobile learning. Those involved in digital technologies seem to find the notion heutagogy compatible with learning in the 21st century. The paper here by Aaron Davis is an example of this application in which he talks about developing a culture of thinking and collaborative learning in organisations through a case study in teacher professional education.

Chris Kenyon, in his paper, provides a very practical example of the application of heutagogy with a specific focus on the use of experiential learning. Finally, Boon Hou Tay combines two of his passions, heutagogy and action research in describing how self-determined learners might go about their learning using soft systems methodology.

Dr Jerry Hoffman
Senior Editor SITJAR

Download the Introduction by Dr Jerry Hoffman

Self-determined Learning (heutagogy): Where Have We Come Since 2000?
Dr Stewart Hase,Consultant Psychologist,NSW Australia

Collaboration, Autonomy and a Culture of Thinking
Aaron Davis, eSmart Coordinator at Brookside P-9 College, Melbourne, Australia

Getting Started
Chris Kenyon, Consultant, Canberra, Australia

Heutagogy via Dialectic Soft Systems Methodology
Dr Boon Hou Tay, Director, IN Technology PTE, Ltd, Singapore

Special Edition 2015: An Exposition of Staff-Student Research Projects 2012 – 2014

2014 National Tertiary Teaching and Learning Conference Special Edition

Welcome to the 2014 National Tertiary Learning and Teaching Conference Proceedings. The conference was held on 1-3 October 2014 in Invercargill, New Zealand. The refereed papers presented here cover a wide range of interesting topics and issues. These papers may be of interest to anyone involved in higher education. The theme of the conference was Te Ao Hou: The New World and many of these papers represent new ways of looking at the world from different perspectives.

I would like to take this chance to thank all the people that have been involved in the reviewing process. It is a job that does not offer monetary compensation but it a crucial part of any journal or proceedings. Without reviewers, proceedings like this would cease to exist, so a big thank you to all those involved.

I would also like to thank all of you who submitted articles for publication. It takes time, effort and a degree of fortitude to write about your research and projects. It is only through your submissions that proceedings like this are possible. Hopefully it has been a valuable experience.

These papers are being published on the Southern Institute of Technology Journal of Applied Research (SITJAR) website. We would like to thank the Southern Institute of Technology both for hosting the conference and for supporting the publication of SITJAR.

The articles in this proceeding are:

Dr Jerry Hoffman

2013 National Tertiary Teaching and Learning Conference Special Edition

Welcome to this special edition of SITJAR featuring a selection of papers presented at the 2013 National Tertiary Learning & Teaching Conference, hosted by the Southern Institute of Technology (SIT) in Invercargill in October 2013. The conference is held annually and hosted by an institute of technology for two consecutive years. The 2013 conference, “Te Ao Hurihuri – The ever changing world”, brought together 90 participants from throughout Aotearoa New Zealand to share their research-based teaching practice, engage in practical workshops, contribute 6 minute solutions, and extend and challenge their own teaching pedagogies.

The keynote speakers in 2013 provided a diverse and stimulating array of presentations that set the context for the conference.

  • Teaching engineering geology in a blended inverted classroom: A success story, Aidan Bigham
  • “I need a job – can hospitality short courses help?” A study of international student needs in Auckland, New Zealand, Hamish Small
  • The rise of pluralism: Issues for educators in a theoretically and culturally diverse climate of practice, Janet May

View the 2013 National Tertiary Learning & Teaching Conference Special edition

Special Massage Edition 2013

Special Action Research Edition

Special Action Research Edition

One of the attractions of action research and action learning to many people is that it is often conducted as part of the researcher’s practice rather than as an ‘add on’. The researcher is usually interested in improving their practice, ensuring the effectiveness of what they are doing or are involved in creating change in a real life situation, for which action research is admirably suited. Training and education situations offer a perfect opportunity for using action research and action learning processes, whether or not you are intending to conduct formal research for publication.

The papers in this special edition exemplify this feature of action research. Hopefully, they will stimulate your interest in using action research and action learning processes in your work or training situation. Moreover, perhaps they will demystify research and promote it as an activity that is available to practitioners and is not just an academic pastime. I would like to thank the authors for their contribution.


Learner Defined Curriculum: Heutagogy and Action Learning in Vocational Training
Author: Dr Stewart Hase

This paper describes the application of learner-centred learning techniques in the conduct of short to medium term training programs in organisations. The approach is underpinned by action learning and heutagogy or self-determined learning. It involves the full engagement of participants in developing, delivering and ensuring the flexibility and relevance of the curriculum. The theoretical basis for the approach is discussed in detail as are the techniques involved in conducting the training, it’s implications and reactions of participants. Some readers may need to take very slow, deep breaths while reading this paper.

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Implementing Organizational Change Using Action Research in Two Asian Cultures
Authors: Shankar Sankaran & Madhu Ranjan

This paper is based on organizational change projects implemented by two managers, the authors of this paper, who used action research in their own organizations for their doctoral studies. Both projects used action learning and action science concepts as a subset of the overall action research intervention, although not explicitly in the second project. One project was carried out to prepare the engineering division of a Japanese multinational company in Singapore to expand its capability to carry out global projects by making large-scale changes in its structure and processes. The other project was carried out in a very large Indian bureaucracy to introduce total quality management in one part of this organization. This paper will first introduce the concepts of action research, action learning, and action science in management research. The two research projects will then be described. This will be followed by the two researchers comparing their projects and reflecting on what changes they would make to the strategies they used in their projects if they were to do this all over again. The paper will conclude with recommendations for project managers who may want to use action research to implement organizational change projects.

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Middle management leadership development through action learning
Author: Bob Dick

This paper describes an action learning program used to improve the ability of managers, especially middle managers, to lead more effectively during times of rapid change. The program consisted of three major vehicles for developing leadership capability. In a weekly middle management forum, managers met to choose projects that deserved attention. For chosen projects, the same middle managers then set up a number of small action learning teams staffed by volunteer middle managers. Associated workshops provided 'just in time' concepts and skills when project team members requested them. Middle managers are the people who carry much of the burden of keeping workface officers informed and involved in change. With some top management support, they were therefore the main participants in the workshops and the project teams. A final section of the paper reflects on the outcomes of the program and the features that contributed to its effectiveness.

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Notes for Readers

The Southern Institute of Technology Journal of Applied Research (SITJAR) specialises in applied research in the vocational and educational sector. Thus topic areas might include: administration and management; teaching and learning; curriculum development; new technologies; policy; innovations; and discipline specific research. Papers can use any research methodology and will include appropriately reviewed performances and exhibitions, for example, in the arts.

One of the unique aspects of SITJAR is that articles can be published in the journal as they are accepted. This ‘seamless' publication regime means that articles can be disseminated more quickly. SITJAR is also a double blind, peer refereed online journal that is freely accessible. SITJAR also accepts Special Editions which generally consist of a series of articles related to a specific subject in the vocational and educational fields of study.

I would like to thank the Editorial Board of SITJAR for their continued work in reviewing papers. I would also like to thank the management team at the Southern Institute of Technology for continuing to support the effort in making SITJAR a reality.

Dr Jerry Hoffman

Notes for Contributors

The Southern Institute of Technology Journal of Applied Research (SITJAR) is a double blind, peer refereed online journal that is freely accessible. Papers are published continuously rather than in editions or volumes. After six months papers are then archived into volumes.

The focus of the journal is on applied rather than pure research concerning any aspect of the vocational education and training (VET) sector. Thus topic areas might include: administration and management; teaching and learning; curriculum development; new technologies; policy; place and role of the VET sector; innovations; and discipline specific research. We welcome papers using any research methodology. Thus submissions may include appropriately reviewed performances and exhibitions, for example, in the arts.

The journal aims to provide a place for researchers to publish high quality research that can be accessed quickly and easily by people who might want to use the findings in a timely manner. Manuscripts, ideally between 3000 and 5000 words, and reviews of between 1000 and 2000 words, should be sent in electronic format (Word Document) to the Editor, Dr Jerry Hoffman at . A hard copy should also be sent to: The Editor - SITJAR, Southern Institute of Technology, PB 90114 Invercargill, New Zealand.

The guidelines for manuscript formatting are provided below and must be followed.

All articles are subject to a double blind refereeing process. To ensure a blind review authors should provide their details on a separate cover page to the manuscript along with the title of the paper. Any information such as references and first person comments should be removed from the text and reference list to avoid recognition (use xxxxxxxxx to blank out relevant parts or names and keep a copy of the completed manuscript so the relevant information can be retrieved later).

Manuscript text formatting and style guidelines

  1. The usual length of a SITJAR article is 3000 to 5000 words, including the abstract (100-200 words), tables and references. Reviews are usually between 1000 and 2000 words. Manuscripts that exceed this length are unlikely to be accepted. Pages should be numbered, centre at the foot of the page.
  2. The preferred spelling standard is Australian English, as per The Macquarie Dictionary.
  3. Before submitting, the authors must ensure that the manuscript is free from spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, and typographical errors. Using a spell checking facility, may not be sufficient and you may need manually to check your manuscript.
  4. The manuscript should be formatted as follows:
    • Page setup: Page size = A4; Orientation = Portrait; All margins = 2.5 cm.
    • Manuscript title: Times New Roman, 16-point, left aligned, sentence case (initial caps and essentials only), followed by one blank line.
    • Abstract: Start the abstract with the sequence "Abstract: " (without the quotes, in 12-point bold face), followed by a 100 to 200-word abstract that contains a concise summary of the article, including its motivation/rationale, problem/s addressed, approach, results and findings/conclusions. The purpose of the abstract is to entice potential readers into reading the full article. Indent the abstract 1 cm from left and right margins. Leave a blank line both before and after abstract, but do not insert any line breaks immediately after the "Abstract:" sequence.
    • Keywords: Include the sequence "Keywords: " (without the quotes, in 12-point bold face), followed by up to six terms (separated by semicolons) that will assist users of search engines and/or online databases in locating your article. As with the abstract, Leave a blank line both before and after the keywords list, but do not insert any line breaks immediately after the "Keywords:" sequence.
    • First-level heading: Times New Roman, 12 point, bold, followed by one blank line, left aligned, sentence case. No numbering.
    • ° Second-level heading: Times New Roman, 12 point, bold, followed by one blank line, left aligned, sentence case. No numbering.
    • ° Third-level heading: Times New Roman, 12 point, italics, not followed by a blank line, left aligned, sentence case. No numbering.
    • Running (body) text: Times New Roman, 12 point, left aligned, single spaced. Blank lines before and after headings and paragraphs are to be sized the same as text lines, i.e. 10 point (Times New Roman). Insert a blank line after each paragraph. The use of "spacing before" and "spacing after" paragraphs should be avoided.
  5. Italics (not bold or underline) should be used to emphasise text. Such text emphases should be used sparingly, and preferably only where expected by convention, such as in the case of titles of books and journals and for proprietary names (e.g. of software packages like Excel).
  6. Where bulleted and numbered lists are used, the text therein should be in Times New Roman, 10 point, left aligned, single spaced, no indents except a hanging indent of 0.5 cm.
  7. Web site URLs should not be embedded into the text of the manuscript. Instead, they should be included in reference list entries in accordance with APA guidelines (see the referencing guidelines below). A corresponding author-date citation should be inserted at the appropriate point within the text.
  8. An Acknowledgements section may optionally be included to record appreciation to individuals and/or organisations for assisting or supporting the authors' work. If needed, this section should be placed after the main text and before the references. It should begin with a first-level heading that reads "Acknowledgements" (without the quotes).
  9. Clear and inclusive language should be used. Contributors should bear in mind that they maybe addressing a diverse audience. Jargon should be avoided where possible and the choice of terms should be clearly defined. Sections in the manuscript should be clearly subtitled following American Psychological Association (APA) protocols.
  10. All notes and references used in the text must follow the APA style. The APA Reference Manual can be used as a guide. References should be indicated in the manuscript by giving the author's name, with the year of publication in parentheses, e.g. Smith (1997) or (Smith, 1997) as appropriate. All references cited in the text should be listed in full at the end of the paper in the following standard form. Download the APA Quick Sheet here.
    Tables, figures and captions to illustrations should be completely understandable independent of text. Tables and figures must appear on separate pages (as annexes) and their approximate position should be indicated in the manuscript. Tables should be numbered by Roman numerals and figures by Arabic numerals. All figures must be able to be transmitted in electronic format.
    Contributors will be notified of the selection outcome after review. Papers are accepted on the understanding that they are not considered for publication elsewhere. Final decisions on all content and presentations of articles remain the prerogative of the journal editor.

Contact address for correspondence

Dr Jerry Hoffman
Southern Institute of Technology
Private Bag 90114 Invercargill, New Zealand
Phone: (03) 2112699
Fax: (03) 2144977

SITJAR Editorial Board

Articles submitted to SITJAR are double blind peer reviewed. Submission of articles will be considered at any time and once accepted for publication the articles will be included in the next online version of the journal.

Dr Jerry Hoffman - Southern Institute of Technology


  • Dr Jo Whittle - Southern Institute of Technology
  • Dr Sally Bodkin-Allen - Southern Institute of Technology

Editorial Board:

  • Prof Ian Freestone - Cardiff University
  • Prof Glen Gardner - Queensland University of Technology
  • Dr Catherine See - AP Leadership Group
  • Dr Keith Ng - Management Development Institute of Singapore
  • Prof Shankar Sankaran - University of Technology, Sydney
  • Cath Fraser - Bay of Plenty Polytechnic
  • Dr Fe Day - Auckland University of Technology
  • Dr Jean Rath - University of Canterbury
  • Dr Renata Phelps - Southern Cross University
  • Dr Tony Mitchell - University of Technology, Sydney
  • Dr Carmel Nottle - WINTEC
  • Dr Stewart Hase - Consultant Psychologist
  • Prof Emmanuel Manalo - Waseda University, Japan
  • Lisa Marie Blaschke - Oldenberg University. Germany
  • Dr Teri McClelland,  Southern Institute of Technology